# Quantum computing and quantum simulation

Quantum calculations of chemical and physical properties, such as molecular energies or reaction rates, increase in difficulty with the size of the system, sometimes exponentially fast. As a result, the most accurate techniques are restricted to small systems. The fundamental obstacle is the presence of entanglement, which is difficult to represent efficiently on a classical computer.

Quantum computers could circumvent this problem in a natural way, by using a controllable quantum process to run a simulation of the unknown process. We have developed a suite of quantum methods for chemical problems, including the simulation of chemical reactions and the determination of properties like the dipole moment. Our proposals have been implemented experimentally on small scales—including the first simulation of molecular energies every carried out on a quantum computer—and we continue to collaborate with experimentalists on pushing the limits of quantum technology.

We also have a strong interest in quantum simulators, purpose-built devices that can simulate a target quantum system without needing to be as powerful or as complicated as universal quantum computers. We have contributed to the development of quantum simulators that were the first to demonstrate partially coherent quantum walks, topologically protected bound states, and environment-assisted quantum transport (which we previously described in the context of photosynthetic energy transport).

### Selected papers

- Classification of coherent enhancements of light-harvesting processesSeveral kinds of coherence have recently been shown to affect the performance of light-harvesting systems, in some cases significantly improving their efficiency. Here, we classify the possible mechanisms of coherent efficiency enhancements, based on the types of coherence that can characterize a light-harvesting system and the types of processes these coherences can affect. We show that enhancements are possible only when coherences and dissipative effects are best described in different bases of states. Our classification allows us to predict a previously unreported coherent enhancement mechanism, where coherence between delocalized eigenstates can be used to localize excitons away from dissipation, thus reducing the rate of recombination and increasing efficiency.
- Coherent and controllable enhancement of light-harvesting efficiencySpectroscopic experiments have identified long-lived coherences in several light-harvesting systems, suggesting that coherent effects may be relevant to their performance. However, there is limited experimental evidence of coherence enhancing light-harvesting efficiency, largely due to the difficulty of turning coherences on and off to create an experimental control. Here we show that coherence can indeed enhance light harvesting and that this effect can be controlled. We construct a model system in which initial coherence can be controlled using the incident light and which is significantly more efficient under coherent, rather than incoherent, excitation. Our proposal would allow for an unambiguous demonstration of light harvesting enhanced by intermolecular coherence, as well as demonstrate the potential for coherent control of excitonic energy transfer.
- Enhancing quantum transport in a photonic network using controllable decoherenceTransport phenomena on a quantum scale appear in a variety of systems, ranging from photosynthetic complexes to engineered quantum devices. It has been predicted that the efficiency of coherent transport can be enhanced through dynamic interaction between the system and a noisy environment. We report an experimental simulation of environment-assisted coherent transport, using an engineered network of laser-written waveguides, with relative energies and inter-waveguide couplings tailored to yield the desired Hamiltonian. Controllable-strength decoherence is simulated by broadening the bandwidth of the input illumination, yielding a significant increase in transport efficiency relative to the narrowband case. We show integrated optics to be suitable for simulating specific target Hamiltonians as well as open quantum systems with controllable loss and decoherence.
- A two-qubit photonic quantum processor and its application to solving systems of linear equationsLarge-scale quantum computers will require the ability to apply long sequences of entangling gates to many qubits. In a photonic architecture, where single-qubit gates can be performed easily and precisely, the application of consecutive two-qubit entangling gates has been a significant obstacle. Here, we demonstrate a two-qubit photonic quantum processor that implements two consecutive CNOT gates on the same pair of polarisation-encoded qubits. To demonstrate the flexibility of our system, we implement various instances of the quantum algorithm for solving of systems of linear equations.
- Observation of topologically protected bound states in a one-dimensional photonic systemTopological phases exhibit some of the most striking phenomena in modern physics. Much of the rich behaviour of quantum Hall systems, topological insulators, and topological superconductors can be traced to the existence of robust bound states at interfaces between different topological phases. This robustness has applications in metrology and holds promise for future uses in quantum computing. Engineered quantum systems—notably in photonics, where wavefunctions can be observed directly—provide versatile platforms for creating and probing a variety of topological phases. Here we use photonic quantum walks to observe bound states between systems with different bulk topological properties and demonstrate their robustness to perturbations—a signature of topological protection. Although such bound states are usually discussed for static (time-independent) systems, here we demonstrate their existence in an explicitly time-dependent situation. Moreover, we discover a new phenomenon: a topologically protected pair of bound states unique to periodically driven systems.
- Simulating chemistry using quantum computersThe difficulty of simulating quantum systems, well known to quantum chemists, prompted the idea of quantum computation. One can avoid the steep scaling associated with the exact simulation of increasingly large quantum systems on conventional computers, by mapping the quantum system to another, more controllable one. In this review, we discuss to what extent the ideas in quantum computation, now a well-established field, have been applied to chemical problems. We describe algorithms that achieve significant advantages for the electronic-structure problem, the simulation of chemical dynamics, protein folding, and other tasks. Although theory is still ahead of experiment, we outline recent advances that have led to the first chemical calculations on small quantum information processors.
- Discrete single-photon quantum walks with tunable decoherenceQuantum walks have a host of applications, ranging from quantum computing to the simulation of biological systems. We present an intrinsically stable, deterministic implementation of discrete quantum walks with single photons in space. The number of optical elements required scales linearly with the number of steps. We measure walks with up to 6 steps and explore the quantum-to-classical transition by introducing tunable decoherence. Finally, we also investigate the effect of absorbing boundaries and show that decoherence significantly affects the probability of absorption.
- Towards quantum chemistry on a quantum computerExact first-principles calculations of molecular properties are currently intractable because their computational cost grows exponentially with both the number of atoms and basis set size. A solution is to move to a radically different model of computing by building a quantum computer, which is a device that uses quantum systems themselves to store and process data. Here we report the application of the latest photonic quantum computer technology to calculate properties of the smallest molecular system: the hydrogen molecule in a minimal basis. We calculate the complete energy spectrum to 20 bits of precision and discuss how the technique can be expanded to solve large-scale chemical problems that lie beyond the reach of modern supercomputers. These results represent an early practical step toward a powerful tool with a broad range of quantum-chemical applications.
- Quantum algorithm for molecular properties and geometry optimizationQuantum computers, if available, could substantially accelerate quantum simulations. We extend this result to show that the computation of molecular properties (energy derivatives) could also be sped up using quantum computers. We provide a quantum algorithm for the numerical evaluation of molecular properties, whose time cost is a constant multiple of the time needed to compute the molecular energy, regardless of the size of the system. Molecular properties computed with the proposed approach could also be used for the optimization of molecular geometries or other properties. For that purpose, we discuss the benefits of quantum techniques for Newton’s method and Householder methods. Finally, global minima for the proposed optimizations can be found using the quantum basin hopper algorithm, which offers an additional quadratic reduction in cost over classical multi-start techniques.
- Polynomial-time quantum algorithm for the simulation of chemical dynamicsThe computational cost of exact methods for quantum simulation using classical computers grows exponentially with system size. As a consequence, these techniques can be applied only to small systems. By contrast, we demonstrate that quantum computers could exactly simulate chemical reactions in polynomial time. Our algorithm uses the split-operator approach and explicitly simulates all electron-nuclear and interelectronic interactions in quadratic time. Surprisingly, this treatment is not only more accurate than the Born–Oppenheimer approximation but faster and more efficient as well, for all reactions with more than about four atoms. This is the case even though the entire electronic wave function is propagated on a grid with appropriately short time steps. Although the preparation and measurement of arbitrary states on a quantum computer is inefficient, here we demonstrate how to prepare states of chemical interest efficiently. We also show how to efficiently obtain chemically relevant observables, such as state-to-state transition probabilities and thermal reaction rates. Quantum computers using these techniques could outperform current classical computers with 100 qubits.